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Predictors of advanced stage presentation in Head and Neck cancer patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Oncology unit, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Tseganesh Asefa*

Background: One of the determinants of the prognosis of head and neck cancer is the stage at presentation, one third of patients with head and neck cancer are present in the early stages of disease and the rest of them come in advanced stages. Advanced stage of head and neck cancer results not only in poor survival but is also associated with more severe late effects of the disease and treatment. Therefore, this study aims to determine predictive factors of advanced stage presentation of head and neck cancer patients at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in patients with histologically proven head and neck cancer during March to April, 2019 at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, oncology center. Data were collected using patient chart review and a pretested interviewer administered questionnaire. EPI-INFO 7.2.2.6 and Stata 14.0 were used for data entry and analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze the associated variables.

Results: From a 102 head and neck cancer patients 59.80% of presented with advanced stage. Male respondents (AOR=0.19; 95% CI=0.06-0.64; p=0.007), insured medical expenses (AOR=0.22; 95% CI=0.07-0.69; p=0.01) and living in Addis Ababa (AOR=0.10; 95% CI=0.03-0.33; p=0.000) decrease the odds of advanced stage presentation while substance use (AOR=3.10; 95% CI=1.01, 9.49; p=0.047) increased odds of advanced tumor stage presentation.

Conclusion and recommendation: In conclusion, head and neck cancer patients presented at advanced stage in TASH, Ethiopia. This study also declared that gender; live in out of Addis Ababa, lack of governmental health insurance and substance user are a factors of advanced stage presentation among head and neck cancer patients. Author recommends that the government could increase the accessibility of health care facilities for those out of Addis Ababa, expand health care insurance, and better to practice evidenced based intervention at the national level according to WHO recommendation.

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